Faith communities must show clear leadership: Abolishing Nuclear Weapons

by Rebekah Sears

“We thus make a passionate plea to the leaders of all religions, all people of good will, and all leaders of nations both with and without nuclear weapons to commit to work to eliminate these horrific devices forever,” from a statement adopted by the Parliament of the World’s Religions, November 2018, developed by Jonathan Granoff of the Global Security Institute.

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Photo courtesy of the Parliament of World’s Religions Facebook Page.

Last month I had the privilege of participating in the Parliament of the World Religions in Toronto. The Parliament is a gathering held every six years, bringing together religious leaders and organizations from around the world, with the purpose of seeking interfaith cooperation to addressing the greatest challenges and obstacles for a just peace facing our world today – challenges that transcend international borders, and that impact peoples of all ethnicities, faiths and creeds.

The theme of this year’s Parliament was: The Promise of Inclusion, the power of love: Pursuing global understanding, reconciliation and change. For seven days, thousands of people participated in plenaries and keynotes, as well as hundreds of workshops, on responding to the global forced migration and refugee crisis; protecting the rights, sovereignty and languages of Indigenous peoples; confronting violence against women and supporting greater leadership of women in faith communities; urgent, timely and coordinated action on climate change; combating social injustice, and countering hate and war; and speaking with a united voice against the looming threat of nuclear war.

Unfortunately, so often religion has been, and continues to be, used as a cover to justify political and social injustice and violence. Faith is a persuasive motivator, and regrettably has, and continues to be, used and manipulated in the pursuit of power – often as a great divider of peoples.

The message at the Parliament was aimed at countering such actions, seeking unity, in both action and conviction, calling all faith leaders to reject the use of religion to harm or oppress others, and instead applying such principles to uphold human dignity and justice.

There are so many themes, panels, workshops and keynotes that I could highlight, but one of the issues that kept coming up – from both political leaders and leaders of faith – was the looming threat of nuclear war and the call to abolish nuclear weapons.

Though only held and controlled in the hands of the few and powerful, the possible and very real and devastating threat of nuclear weapons knows no borders nor abides by international law or recognizes human dignity.

Last year, the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) oversaw the final push for the adoption of a  Global Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, for which ICAN was awarded the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize. The nine states that currently hold nuclear weapons refused to sign the treaty, as did many of their allies, including Canada.

The position of the leadership of the Parliament of the World’s Religions on this is clear, based on a statement released just after the conference. It was a call to action for religious leaders of all faiths to lead the way and speak truth and demand justice and peace from the powerful nations of the world, regarding the very real threat of nuclear weapons.

Representatives of ICAN were also at the Parliament itself, professors and experts Dr. Emily Welty, also of the World Council of Churches, and her spouse Dr. Matthew Bolton. At a plenary session they spoke about the often-patronizing reaction they get when speaking out to states resistant to signing the treaty, both weapon-holders and others – “It’s complicated.” Yes, like most big geopolitical issues, denuclearization is a complicated process. But to throw in the towel and ignore the potential devastating realities is just not an option.

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Photo courtesy of the Parliament of World’s Religions Facebook Page.

The message of Welty and Bolton was clear. We know, through the research and investigations – the science and testimonies – the definite devastating impacts of a possible nuclear war. As we speak, nuclear testing continues to have devastating impacts on communities on Christmas Island in the South Pacific, along with a dozen other countries where there has been nuclear testing since 1945. Locals are rarely consulted and often not even warned. As people of faith we understand the call to come together on the issues that unite us and to speak up for justice and human dignity.

 

After this plenary session, Peter Noteboom, the General Secretary of the Canadian Council of Churches, and Cesar Jaramillo, Executive Director of Project Ploughshares co-lead a workshop called Principles to Practices: peace and abolishing nuclear weapons. Peter and Cesar presented research, testimonies and personal stories with a call to action from a Christian faith perspective. Earlier this year the Canadian Council of Churches (CCC) passed a resolution outlining their Shared Principles of Peace, for all member churches. The document outlines principles of peace as part of the vocation of the church and its members, peace as means to work for justice, peacemaking as political engagement and a response to the threats of conflict.

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Cesar Jaramillo and others at a press conference when ICAN won the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize: Photo courtesy of Paula Cardenas Left to right: International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) campaigners Setsuko Thurlow, Ray Acheson, and Cesar Jaramillo call on Canada to join a UN nuclear weapons ban at a press conference in Toronto on October 27, 2017. Jaramillo is the executive director of Project Ploughshares, an MCC partner.

To Peter the vocation of people of faith is clear – to be a united voice, speaking out of both practicalities and principles to demand a nuclear weapon-free world now – not after another Hiroshima…now!

Rebekah Sears is the MCC Ottawa Office Policy Analyst

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A rich feast of peacebuilding flavours

My head and heart were very full at the end of the Global Mennonite Peacebuilding Conference and Festival hosted by Conrad Grebel University College in Waterloo, Ontario, June 9-12.  How could they not be, after three intense days of plenary sessions, workshops, a conversation café, a concert, a drama performance, art exhibits and a rich closing worship service?

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Making new friends. GMPCF photo/Jen Konkle

Two years in the making, the conference and festival brought together 200 peace practitioners, pastors, theologians, activists, students and others from 20 countries. From Canada to Colombia, from India to Indonesia, from Germany to Nigeria, we gathered to consider what it means to be Mennonite peacebuilders in unique and vastly different contexts.

There was much to celebrate about Mennonite peacebuilding, particularly with respect to the building of bridges across divides of fear and distrust. From Paulus Widjaja[1] of Indonesia we learned how, in the wake of the Asian tsunami and other disasters, local Mennonites worked alongside members of a militant Islamic groups to rebuild homes.  In working side by side, they became friends.  From Dann Pantoja[2] of the Philippines, we learned how a peacebuilders community has helped to foster reconciliation between separatist Muslims and evangelical Christians. From Christina Asheervadam[3]  of India we learned that restorative justice principles have fostered healing within families and within the Mennonite Brethren churches.

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A choir performs “Earth Peace” by Carol Ann Weaver. GMPCF photo/Jen Konkle

The celebration included stories of unique peace initiatives within local, national and international spaces. From Thandiwe Daka[4] of Zambia we learned how peace clubs for children and youth are transforming family and community life in parts of Africa. From Jenny Neme[5] and others from Colombia, we learned of how Anabaptist advocacy for peace has helped to bring about some legal provisions for conscientious objectors and to build momentum for a national ceasefire, after decades of war.  And from Fernando Enns[6] of Germany, we learned that Mennonite participation in the World Council of Churches over many decades has helped to nurture a growing commitment to peace and nonviolence within the worldwide Christian church.

Indeed, there was much to celebrate.  But the conference was not only about celebration.  It also invited us to name and reflect on failures in Mennonite peacebuilding.  And there were many.

Kim Penner[7] reminded us that Mennonite peace theology has neglected to adequately address violence against women.  Lisa Schirch[8] pointed out that Mennonites have often been quicker to love the offender than the victim of violence.  In a facilitated dialogue, Leah Gazan[9] and Steve Heinrichs[10] insisted that Mennonites have only begun to consider what decolonization means in the Canadian context and what reconciliation between Indigenous and Settler people will require. Regina Shands Stolzfus[11] and Tobin Miller Shearer[12] were even more hard-hitting, saying that “white Mennonite peacemaking” is an oxymoron; in their view, white Mennonites rarely dare to consider their privilege of “whiteness” and this failure keeps them from genuine and authentic peacemaking. Numerous voices reminded us that Mennonites are often better at peacebuilding outside of our own churches and communities than within them.

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Lots of conversation.  GMPCF photo/Jen Konkle

We also heard voices of caution and concern.  For example, Alain Epp Weaver[13] issued a caution against what he called “Christian pacifist triumphalism” – the notion that Mennonite peacemaking will always “work” and that we will have an answer for every violent context.  At some times, he insisted, “the most faithful response is silence, mourning and lament.” Tom Yoder Neufeld[14] insisted that Mennonite peacebuilders remember that Jesus – the crucified One – is our peace; without that remembrance he said, “Our theology will become an ideology of nonviolence.” And there was the plea from Betty Pries[15]  and Ted Koontz[16] that peacemaking is not so much about what we do as who we are – people of peace, with a heart of peace.

There was also the poignant story of KyongJung[17] Kim of South Korea, who spoke of what it means to be a conscientious objector in his country – namely, serving an 18-month prison sentence.  Describing his own personal journey to pacifism, Kim insisted that a Mennonite peace church will grow – not through comfort — but through difficulty and adversity.

So what does it mean to be a Mennonite or Anabaptist peacebuilder today?  The conversation café produced an abundance of ideas and images which were translated into the “wordle” below. The point was not to arrive at a consensus definition, but rather to engage as many participants as possible in exploring what they see as core to Mennonite peacebuilding.  The conversation hinted at the tension between those who see Mennonite peacebuilding as a set of well-honed tools and practices and those who see it primarily as a faith orientation and spiritual identity. It also alluded to the reality that, despite the conference’s deliberate efforts to involve Mennonites from the global south, those from the global north continue to have an undue influence in articulating what Mennonite peacebuilding is all about.

Wordle from GMPCFIn many ways, the conference was like a vast feast with an amazing array of dishes – each one offering a new flavour on Mennonite peacebuilding.  No wonder I felt full to the brim.

By Esther Epp-Tiessen, with Rebekah Sears and Jennifer Wiebe, of the Ottawa Office.  

 

[1] Paulus Widjaja is Director of the Center for the Study and Promotion of Peace, Duta Wacana Christian University, Jogjakarta, Indonesia.
[2] Dann Pantoja, works with Peacebuilders Community, under Mennonite Church Canada Witness, Philippines.
[3] Christina Asheervadam is Director of the Center for Peace & Conflict Resolution Studies with the Mennonite Brethren Centenary Bible College in India.
[4]Thandiwe Daka is from Zambia and is a participant in MCC’s International Volunteer Exchange Program.
[5 Jenny Neme is Director of Justapaz, Bogota, Colombia.
[6] Fernando Enns is Professor of Theology and Ethics at Vrije Universiteit (Free University) in Amsterdam, Netherlands, and Director of the Institute of Peace Church Theology at the University of Hamburg, Germany. He sits on the Central Committee of the World Council of Churches.
[7] Kim Penner is a doctoral student in theology at the Toronto Mennonite Theological Centre.
[8] Lisa Schirch is Research Professor at the Center for Justice and Peacebuilding, Eastern Mennonite University, Harrisonburg, Virginia.
[9] Leah Gazan is a member of Wood Mountain Lakota Nation in Treaty 4 territory; she teaches at the University of Winnipeg.
[10] Steve Heinrichs is Director of Indigenous Relations for Mennonite Church Canada.
[11] Regina Shands Stolzfus is Assistant Professor of Peace, Justice and Conflict Studies at Goshen College, Goshen, Indiana, USA.
[12] Tobin Miller Shearer is Associate Professor of History at the University of Montana, USA.
[13] Alain Epp Weaver is Director of Strategic Planning for Mennonite Central Committee, Akron, PA, USA.
[14] Thomas Yoder Neufeld is retired from teaching New Testament Studies at Conrad Grebel University College, Waterloo, ON.
[15] Betty Pries is a mediator and trainer with L3 Group/ARC Ministries, Waterloo, Canada.
[16] Ted Koontz is retired from teaching Ethics at Anabaptist Mennonite Biblical Seminary, Elkhart, IN, USA.
[17] KyongJung Kim is Northeast Asia representative for Mennonite World Conference, Waterloo, ON.