In 2015, the United Nations Refugee Agency declared the mass exodus of Syrians from their homes into neighboring nations to be “the world’s single largest refugee crisis for almost a quarter of a century.” Around the same time, increasing numbers of small-scale farmers in the Global South were seeing their crops stunted by climate change and choosing to seek a living elsewhere.
Increasingly, countries of transit are becoming countries of destination and former destination countries are growing more hostile, tightening border security and toughening migration policies. Politicians are building successful political platforms upon xenophobia and unsourced claims that immigrants are making society more dangerous.
Although migration has always been a constant presence, the past few years have highlighted how multi-faceted and even contentious the movement of people can be.
In the New York Declaration, agreed upon in October 2016, United Nations (UN) Member States committed to start formulating a global response to the current realities of migration, as well as a flexible framework that could accommodate future shifts in migration flows while upholding the safety and dignity of those on the move.
On July 13, 2018, the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly, and Regular Migration (GCM) was finalized. The drafting of the GCM was the first time that UN Member States have collectively negotiated and created a document that considers migration holistically—from driving factors, to inclusion and social cohesion, to conduct in the case of return.
Not surprisingly, drafting such an extensive document among nearly two hundred uniquely situated Member States, including Canada, was an extraordinarily complex task. To ensure a comprehensive and cross-cutting document, the drafting process was divided into three phases of work.
The first two phases, consultations and stocktaking, were held to discuss what general topics should be included in the text. After the co-facilitators released the Zero Draft of the GCM in February 2018, they commenced the intergovernmental negotiations phase.
Negotiations took place at the UN Headquarters in New York for one week a month from February to July 2018. For up to eight hours a day during these weeks, member states, non-governmental organizations, civil society coalitions, and migrant advocates debated the text of the GCM.
The co-facilitators and member states finalized the wording of the GCM at the end of the July negotiations, and will formally adopt the text this December at the Intergovernmental Conference to Adopt the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration in Marrakech, Morocco.
For a more detailed description of the GCM’s purpose and the GCM drafting process, read our blog post from last year or visit the MCC UN Office’s website. Stay tuned for Part 2 regarding Canada’s role and MCC advocacy asks relating to the Global Compact.
– By Abby Hershberger, Program Assistant, MCC United Nations Office