This week’s guest writer is Brian Dyck, Refugee Program Coordinator for MCC Manitoba and chairperson of the Sponsorship Holder Agreement Association in Canada.
“We are in trouble.” These were the words of António Guterres, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), as he launched into a summary of the current situation of refugees and Internally Displaced People (IDPs) around the world. He was making his closing address to the Annual Tripartite Consultation on Resettlement June 24-26 in Geneva, Switzerland.
Just the week before on World Refugee day (June 20) a sobering report was issued by the UNHCR saying that there are 50.2 million refugees and IDPs in the world; that’s the highest number since the end of World War II. For more on that you can get the Global Trends for 2013 report at the UNHCR website or see a five minute video about the current state of refugees and IDPs around the world.
While the 50.2 million displaced includes Palestinians refugees under UNWRA, the tables do not take Palestinians who are not under the UNHCR mandate into consideration. So Palestinians in Gaza, the West Bank, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan are not included in the charts.
The number is not the only disturbing aspect of conflict displacement today. Another important aspect of the displacement is that fewer are finding a durable solution to their displacement. Those who have been able to safely return to their home has been declining as more conflicts become protracted and seemingly intractable. Last year, only 414,600 refugees returned to their homes which is the fourth lowest number in 25 years. What makes this number even more of a concern is that about two-thirds of those who returned went to Syria (140,800), the Democratic Republic of Congo (68,400), and Iraq (60,900) — countries that continue to have conflict and displacement.
There seems to be a lot of people entering the “nation of the displaced,” and not just from places that are well known like Syria. Many flee as a result of lower level conflicts that are only a blip on the international page of our newspapers. Few have a chance to immigrate out of this sad and desolate “nation.” Protracted refugees (those that have been refugees for more than five years) now account for 54% of all refugees, and the average time of displacement for a refugee is closer to 20 years. In refugee camps today there is often a generation of children who know no other life. This is illustrated most clearly in the Daddab refugee camp in Northern Kenya, where there are 10,000 third-generation refugees.
While these protracted situations are a serious concern, the situation in Syria overshadowed many other discussions as we discussed refugee resettlement in Geneva. The displacement of Syrians is a relatively new situation, but it is a large and growing population in an extremely volatile region. The UNHCR set a resettlement target of 30,000 Syrians for 2014, and they had pledges to meet that goal from various states around the world. Looking ahead, the target for resettling Syrian refugees is 100,000 over the next two years over and above the commitment to refugee resettlement from other situations. While there was a lot of discussion about how to meet this, there was little commitment to solid numbers from the major resettlement states like the United States, Australia and Canada. That may come, but there is fear that the commitment will be disappointing.
There have been some hopeful signs. European states, who in the past have not done a lot of refugee resettlement, are pledging to resettle a lot of Syrian refugees. Germany alone has committed to 20,000 Syrians in a short term asylum program. European states and NGOs are also showing some interest in Canada’s Private Sponsorship of Refugee Program (PSRP) that MCC in Canada has been a part of since 1979 to increase their capacity to resettle refugees and have the diaspora in their countries involved supporting resettled refugees.
In terms of Canada’s commitment, there has been a lot of discussion in the last few months of the pledge of 1,300 Syrians to be resettled. While much could be said to unpack that number, I think it is more important for us to focus on what Canada’s commitment is for 2015-16. What share of the 100,000 that the UNHCR wants to resettle will Canada commit to?
Generally when the UNHCR puts out an appeal, Canada looks at the number and commits to about ten percent. To date, the Canadian government has said they will take part but has not set a number. For Canada to resettle 10,000 Syrians in the next two years could be a huge undertaking, however with proper planning and support, it can be done.
As chair of the Sponsorship Agreement Holder Association, I have been asked a number of times what Sponsoring Agreement Holders in Canada can be expected to do to resettle Syrian refugees. This is difficult to answer. Sponsoring groups, including many Mennonite churches, have focused on resettlement of other refugees around the world and we would not want to take away from that. However the Syrian situation really needs our attention. We need groups to add Syria to their list of places that we sponsor from. That is beginning to happen, but the take up is slow.
As MCC, we have already been involved in relief efforts in Lebanon, Jordan and Syria where we have had program for many years. It is important for us to continue this. That immediate help to those we can reach in those countries are the most cost effective way that we can help.
It is also time for us to help resettle refugees out of Lebanon and Jordan to show that we are in support of those countries that are hosting so many Syrian refugees, as well as Iraqis and other refugees who were already refugee in large numbers before the Syrian conflict exploded. To do that, we need churches in our constituency in Canada to step forward and commit to financial and time commitment of resettling refugees.
The Canadian government certainly needs to step forward and commit to taking a share of the UNHCR’s goal for the next two years. However, MCC has often been a leader in large resettlement efforts going back to the origins of the Private Sponsorship of Refugees Program in 1979. The resettlement program has always been something that relies on our constituent churches to really make things happen. It is my prayer that Mennonite Churches will once again say they will welcome the stranger.